Eastern State Penitentiary, a former jail turned museum in Philadelphia, used to lure in guests each Halloween with an occasion known as “Terror Behind the Walls.” The haunted home, with evil docs, a jailbreak, and zombie inmates leaping out to scare guests, was one of many museum’s most profitable fundraising occasions. But beginning final 12 months, the museum determined to drop the gore and emphasize the academic. Now the occasion is extra optical illusions, eerie soundtracks, and dwell performances targeted on the museum’s mission of highlighting problems with incarceration.
Museum curators debated the appropriateness of the haunted home through the years. Sean Kelley, Eastern State’s senior vp and director of interpretation, stated he had grown uncomfortable with using jail scenes within the haunted home. “I’m amazed at how numb many people will be about these websites. The complete topic of incarceration is much less a supply of amusement than it was 10 years in the past in America, however there’s nonetheless like a layer of individuals considering that it is humorous,” he stated. “But it’s not humorous to us.”
Prison tourism usually depends closely on the spooky, the grotesque, and the salacious to draw guests for a playful afternoon of ducking into cells and taking selfies in striped jumpsuits. But the whole trade, constructed largely on leisure on the expense of incarcerated individuals’s dignity, is grappling with a rising legal justice reform motion — and the enterprise is being challenged by questions on exploitation and voyeurism.
Some jail museums are much less scholarly historical past than grotesque spectacle. At the West Virginia Penitentiary, guests can sit in a defunct electrical chair, and play “Escape the Pen,” an escape-room type recreation the place gamers have a one-hour “keep of execution” granted by the governor to flee dying. On the penitentiary’s TripAdvisor web page, there are photos of smiling kids sitting within the electrical chair. (Tom Stiles, the tour director, stated that the West Virginia Penitentiary tour “doesn’t attempt to disrespect an inmate or an inmate’s life. It doesn’t attempt to disrespect the establishment itself. We inform historic details.”)
The Missouri State Penitentiary in Jefferson City encourages guests to take photographs within the outdated fuel chamber used to execute 40 inmates, over half of whom have been Black. The facility provides an eight-hour in a single day ghost tour, asking attendees if they’ll survive the night time on “the bloodiest 47 acres in America.” Texas Prison Museum, the place the reward store sells branded “Solitary ConfineMINTS,” shows nooses, pictures of a deadly injection execution, and a defunct “Old Sparky” electrical chair, and lets guests pose for photos in a reproduction jail cell.
In historian Clint Smith’s book, “How the Word Is Passed,” he recounts his visit to the Louisiana State Penitentiary at Angola, a prison built on a former slave plantation. Upon entering, he is greeted by a disturbing image of a White man on horseback overseeing a group of Black men working in a field. The photo hangs in a gift shop that sells Angola branded T-shirts, shot glasses, and koozies that say “Angola: A Gated Community.” Smith writes that he seemed across the reward store, questioning whom it was trying to serve: “Who noticed the most important maximum-security jail within the nation as some form of vacationer vacation spot?”
In addition to the jail tour and museum reward store, Angola operates an annual prison rodeo, wherein incarcerated males with no prior coaching compete for the leisure of hundreds of holiday makers. The most harmful occasion is the Poker Game. Officials launch a bull into an space the place incarcerated males are seated at a desk; the final man seated on the desk is awarded $500. The 2022 rodeo offered out in April. (An Angola spokesperson stated the museum is a separate nonprofit from the jail or the Department of Corrections and “exists to supply a historic document of the jail’s previous and current.” The voluntary jail rodeo “provides a singular alternative for incarcerated individuals to spend time with their pals and family members exterior of standard visitation.”)
Prison tourism extends to hospitality as nicely. In Boston, the Liberty Hotel occupies the location of the previous Charles Street Jail, which as soon as imprisoned suffragists and civil rights activists, together with Malcolm X. In the Nineteen Seventies, a choose discovered circumstances within the jail so horrible that they have been inhumane. Today, company staying on the luxurious resort can obtain a tour of the jail with a complimentary glass of champagne, and dine on the restaurant, Clink, and the bars, Alibi and Catwalk, set on the previous jail catwalk.
“The manner the United States approaches jail tourism re-inscribes the sort of politics that help mass incarceration,” stated Jill McCorkel, a professor of criminology at Villanova University. “It turns human struggling right into a spectacle.” To her, the “gold customary” of jail tourism websites are Robben Island in South Africa, the place Nelson Mandela was incarcerated, and Kilmainham Gaol, a former jail in Dublin, Ireland, for his or her considerate depiction of the websites’ historical past.
Over the previous a number of a long time, curiosity has surged in mass incarceration as a humanitarian trigger, fueled by exploding jail populations and outbreaks of lethal violence — from the 1971 Attica jail rebellion to the present chaos at New York’s overcrowded Rikers Island jail complicated. In some methods, the altering tone of jail tourism websites displays the shifting public notion of the stresses and inequities of the penal system. It is a part of a broader rethinking of how we memorialize the previous, from Civil War statues and former slave plantations to lynching websites and focus camps.
A brand new jail museum is within the works, adjoining to the still-operational Sing Sing Correctional Facility in Ossining, New York. Brent Glass, the chief director of the forthcoming Sing Sing Prison Museum, says that Sing Sing’s historical past represents “each chapter in America’s legal justice historical past.” Opened in 1826, Sing Sing is among the best-known prisons within the nation. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg have been executed there, the Yankees have performed exhibition baseball video games towards incarcerated males, and Warner Brothers Studios has used the jail as a movie locale.
The undeniable fact that Sing Sing nonetheless homes over 1,500 males complicates the ethics of constructing a museum designed to inform the jail’s historical past whereas hundreds of incarcerated males and their households are nonetheless dwelling that historical past. Glass says the museum has been designed along with previously incarcerated individuals and their households, considering any sensitivities which may come up.
“We’re by no means thinking about pandering to voyeurism. And we’re not thinking about exploiting, as some museums do, the paranormal curiosity,” Glass stated. “We suppose this story is compelling sufficient and attention-grabbing sufficient as a human story, a narrative of historical past, and a narrative of encouraging individuals to think about a extra equitable justice system.”
Last 12 months, Alcatraz launched an exhibit known as “The Big Lockup: Mass Incarceration in the United States,” designed to “inform untold tales necessary to our nation’s historical past in regards to the complicated problem of incarceration.” The Fauquier History Museum at the Old Jail in Warrenton, Virginia, has a brand new exhibit targeted on how the jail was a barrier to freedom for runaway enslaved individuals within the nineteenth century. The museum director instructed The Washington Post that he desires to “get rid of some romanticism about outdated jails and prisons.”
The seriousness with which Eastern State Penitentiary handles the topic units it other than most jail tourism websites. A well timed artwork set up engraved on the glass encasement of the jail’s greenhouse illustrates the case of Doris Jean Ostreicher, an heiress whose unlawful abortion and dying led to the imprisonment of Milton Schwartz, the bartender who carried out the abortion. What as soon as was the hospital ward now holds an exhibit on illnesses in jail, from tuberculosis to AIDS to Covid-19. Photos and narration from each incarcerated individuals and correctional officers inform the story of the jail within the twentieth century.
One factor a customer learns on a two-hour self-guided audio tour of the Eastern State Penitentiary is that the United States jail system faces the identical issues it did when the cells of the outdated jail have been full: the unfold of illness, gang violence, isolation, psychological sickness, and the disproportionate variety of incarcerated Black and brown individuals. Many correctional amenities nonetheless don’t have air-con and warmth. During the narration on the audio tour, a previously incarcerated man recounts being instructed by correctional workers upon his launch that “they’ll see him in six months.” Last 12 months, a previously incarcerated man instructed me that correctional workers at his facility stated upon his launch that “they’ll go away the lights on for him.” What jail tourism can present us is how far we haven’t come.
At the tip of the audio tour at Eastern State Penitentiary, a 16-foot metal sculpture known as “The Big Graph” provides a visible illustration of mass incarceration in America. It illustrates the racial breakdown of jail populations since 1970 and charts different nations’ charges of incarceration in comparison with the United States. (The U.S. sits far above the remaining.) The exhibit, known as “Prisons Today: Questions within the Age of Mass Incarceration,” was added in 2016 in an effort to contextualize the influence of Eastern State Penitentiary and U.S. prisons.
Eastern State’s Sean Kelley teaches a Zoom class to incarcerated males at SCI Chester in Pennsylvania, and through one recorded class, the boys shared their ideas about jail museums. Robert S., an incarcerated man at SCI Chester, stated he doesn’t have an issue with jail museums, however organizers ought to be sure that individuals have an understanding of the impact on the individuals who have been housed there. “The museum is for amusement, however this was somebody’s ache,” he stated. “This was somebody’s battle. This was somebody’s life. It wasn’t amusement to them.”