“It is sort of troublesome subject for the nation as a result of Kazakhstan could be very wealthy in coal reserves, it’s fairly low-cost and probably the most of power sector is counting on coal for coal-fired technology, electrical energy, and warmth as nicely,” he mentioned in an interview on the sidelines of Energy Week Central Asia & Mongolia within the Uzbek capital Tashkent on April 26.
He spoke about challenges and prospects of inexperienced power growth in Kazakhstan. “Let’s begin with warmth. In many international locations once we’re speaking about renewables, we’re speaking about electrical energy technology however for Kazakhstan contemplating its local weather it’s essential not overlook about warmth technology due to very chilly climate within the winter and producing warmth with renewables is sort of a troublesome job so there are lots of mixed warmth energy stations in Kazakhstan that are based mostly on coal, and this needs to be additionally mirrored in any power transition technique,” Kovalenko mentioned.
“Considering how the power sector in Kazakhstan is structured you can’t simply swap off coal energy stations in a single second as a result of the power system will simply be destroyed. So, the purpose that through the technique of phasing out coal two points needs to be solved: first, who will take the bottom load in technology and second who would be the maneuvering capability,” the Ernst & Young skilled added.
Based in Almaty, Kazakhstan, Kovalenko mentioned the primary job will probably be partially solved by nuclear energy stations which may generate electrical energy and, on the similar, warmth and the sort of know-how can take the bottom load within the power system.
“But the issue is with maneuvering capability. First, you’re phasing out coal energy stations, second you’re rising the share of renewables in your power combine. Both duties require to put in new base load technology and new maneuvering capability,” he mentioned. “With base load it’s a bit simpler as a result of you may a minimum of contemplate nuclear. For maneuvering it’s rather more troublesome as a result of maneuvering capability might be hydro, and it may be gasoline energy stations. So, Kazakhstan is already going through deficit of pure gasoline and sadly it doesn’t have such robust reserves of pure gasoline like Uzbekistan,” he mentioned.
Moreover, he mentioned that whereas the Kazakhstan has hydropower potential, it wants large investments to develop hydropower vegetation.
He referred to as for a rigorously deliberate mannequin to section out coal. “One of the options is easy phasing out of the coal technology, not constructing new producing capacities however when some capacities are phased out to substitute them by renewables,” Kovalenko mentioned, including that, on the similar time, the nation wants to spice up maneuvering technology capability.
He defined that maneuvering capability is essential as a result of renewable power technology is unstable. “Just due to pure elements you can’t count on that, for instance, wind energy stations will generate the identical quantity throughout the entire day every day, every hour, every minute, every second. It’s with will increase and reduces however the consumption is steady,” he mentioned. “So, one thing ought to stabilize this unstable technology simply to have steady electrical energy within the grid,” he added.
Full load electrical energy technology within the hydropower, gas-power fired vegetation may very well be transferred on to the grid through the peak demand, he mentioned.
During Energy Week Central Asia & Mongolia in Tashkent, Nurlan Kapenov , Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Qazaq Green RES Association, additionally famous that it takes time and critical funding to resolve the maneuvering capability deficit.
Kaperov mentioned Kazakhstan joined the worldwide motion to realize carbon neutrality targets on the finish of 2020.
Kazakhstan at the moment has a excessive degree of depreciation of funds within the coal power sector, and the retiring capacities must be changed by renewable power sources, primarily photo voltaic and wind technology, he mentioned.
In 4 years, the Association has achieved the next outcomes: 134 renewable power services function within the nation, producing about 4% of electrical energy.
“The growth of inexperienced power in Kazakhstan has uncovered key issues of the ability business, reminiscent of imbalances within the system, lack of maneuvering capability, dependence on neighboring states, depreciation of kit, isolation of the Western zone, power safety of our nation,” Kaperov mentioned.
During the identical convention in Tashkent, Ainur Sospanova, chairwoman of the Board of the Qazaq Green Renewable Energy Association, mentioned RES services will generate about 6% of electrical energy in Kazakhstan by 2026. The affiliation has achieved its targets, Sospanova mentioned, including that renewable power sources at the moment produce about 4% of Kazakhstan’s electrical energy. “We hope that each one contracted volumes of RES services building will probably be commissioned,” she mentioned.
In 2022, Kazakhstan will formulate the Doctrine of reaching carbon neutrality of the Republic of Kazakhstan till 2060, she mentioned. “Currently, the general public and the federal government are discussing this doc as a result of we perceive that it determines, generally, the additional financial course of our nation,” Sospanova mentioned.
Meanwhile, Kovalenko informed New Europe that Kazakhstan is finding out Uzbekistan as a result of the latter’s power combine and the power system is already rather more prepared for maneuvering capability and for rising of renewables simply because many of the electrical energy technology in Uzbekistan is gas-fired based mostly.
The issue which can create extra demand for investments in Kazakhstan is the numerous share of outdated capability. The time when these outdated capacities needs to be phased out will, be very quickly, he mentioned. Kazakhstan might want to construct new capability to substitute the vegetation which are phasing out or make investments into deep modernization of present capability, Kovalenko mentioned.
The selection is to construct new capacities to substitute these which are phasing out or to modernize present ones. “The level is in case you are actually phasing out these capacities and spend money on new ones the query through which sort of technology you’ll make investments – renewables, gasoline, clear coal, nuclear or one thing else,” Kovalenko mentioned.
Turning to interconnection of power techniques in Central Asia, Kovalenko reminded that was a key subject mentioned through the convention in Tashkent. “That was actual the query that was requested in the present day: Maybe with the objective to implement extra renewables, it’s time to sit down collectively once more and take into consideration the unified Central Asia unified power system and construct renewable capacities within the unified power system moderately than to make it in a country-by-country foundation constructing their very own networks,” he mentioned. “The potential for international funding in Central Asia is big. To construct these capacities you want important funding. For instance, if the federal government of Kazakhstan will publish these three-year forecasted auctions and buyers know in a year-by-year foundation the capacities that they are going to be constructed to allow them to plan their investments,” Kovaleko mentioned.
During the Soviet Union there was a unified power system of Central Asian international locations. “It’s essential for the area and it’s a novel probability for the area as a result of this isn’t one thing that will probably be constructed from scratch. It is coming again to what was already in place in earlier instances and the power techniques of the area had been created from scratch contemplating that there can be a unified power system, he mentioned. One of the issues right here is that constructing a unified system of Central Asia international locations is conflicting with Eurasia Energy Union as a result of for instance Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Russia are in that power union,” Kovaleko mentioned, including, “And these are two conflicting concepts and utterly reverse vectors. And I agree with what was mentioned in our panel that politicians ought to sit collectively and resolve through which route international locations would go whether or not to combine into single power market in Eurasia Energy Union or to construct a single power system of Central Asia”.
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