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America’s Monster

America’s Monster


While Raziq’s techniques labored in some respects, beating again the Taliban in Kandahar and incomes him the admiration of many who opposed them, the technique got here at a transparent value. It stirred such enmity in components of the inhabitants that the Taliban turned his cruelty right into a recruiting device, broadcasting it to draw new fighters. Many Afghans got here to revile the American-backed authorities and all the pieces it represented.

“None of us supported the Taliban, at the least not at first,” stated Fazul Rahman, whose brother was kidnapped in entrance of witnesses throughout Raziq’s reign. “But when the federal government collapsed, I ran by the streets, rejoicing.”

Even some who cheered the ruthlessness Raziq wielded in opposition to his enemies lamented the broader corruption and criminality he helped enshrine, a key a part of why the Afghan authorities collapsed in 2021. After his loss of life, his commanders expanded their predation additional, extorting odd individuals and stealing from their very own males’s wages and provides.

“What they introduced underneath the title of democracy was a system within the palms of some mafia teams,” stated Qari Mohammad Mubarak, who ran a women’ college in Kandahar and initially supported the federal government. “The individuals got here to hate democracy.”

Many American commanders, diplomats and their allies in Afghanistan knew on the time they had been bankrolling a warfare that strayed far exterior worldwide regulation.

“Sometimes we requested Raziq about incidents of alleged human rights abuses, and after we received solutions we might be like, ‘Whoa, I hope we didn’t implicate ourselves in a warfare crime simply by listening to about it,’” stated Henry Ensher, a State Department official who held a number of posts on Afghanistan, together with as the highest civilian consultant in Kandahar in 2010 and 2011, when he labored with Raziq.

“We knew what we had been doing, however we didn’t suppose we had a alternative,” Ensher stated.

Most American leaders — together with greater than a dozen interviewed by The Times — stated that Raziq had been seen as the one accomplice able to beating again the Taliban within the heartland of the insurgency, the place a pitched battle for dominance was underway.

“In the second, we’d have succeeded, however so what?” Ensher stated. “The whole enterprise was flawed.”

Many Afghans say Raziq used the Americans and their navy may to pursue a private vendetta, taking vengeance in opposition to the rivals his tribe had been preventing for many years.

In interviews, many former senior American officers acknowledged that they by no means grasped that dynamic. It was a defining attribute over a technology of fight — how little the United States understood in regards to the warfare it was waging.

The United Nations, human rights teams and information shops raised critical issues about Raziq and his forces, however impartial investigations had been restricted, particularly with the area so impenetrable in the course of the warfare.

To decide the extent of the abuses, The Times combed by greater than 50,000 handwritten complaints that had been scrawled into the Kandahar governor’s ledgers from 2011 by the top of the warfare in 2021. In them, we discovered the rudimentary particulars of virtually 2,200 circumstances of suspected disappearances.

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